GRAFT Pre-SALE is ON!

Dear Graft Network Supporters, the time has come!  The GRAFT token Pre-SALE is now open.  Not only is it 30% off the ICO price, but because the pricing was set when Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies were at their peak and we decided not to re-price it after the dip, the effective discount is closer to 50%! For details please see https://www.graft.network/pre-ico/ Thank You! GRAFT Team.

Graft vs Ripple and Others: Focus on Buyers, Merchants, and Their Privacy

Focus on Buyer and Merchant NeedsRipple’s is mostly focused on bank settlements, while Graft provide solutions to buyers and merchants. Buyers can pay anywhere with cryptocurrencies or plastic card using Graft wallet app. Merchants can receive payment from anyone using point of sale accepting both cryptocurrencies and plastic cards. Faster payment confirmations are provided by Graft supernode authorization sample, a process that is more similar to Dash masternode scheme. Unlike Dash masternode, however, Graft supernode is not a “wrapper” or a second tier as it is designed to be a monolithic code base that implements both real time authorization and blockchain settlement (mining) features. Such an architecture improves security of the real time authorization process, as payments cannot be settled “off supernode chain” by the “lower” level blockchain network nodes, without supernodes knowing about their existence. Thus, all Graft transactions are authorized instantly without requiring additional fee, by supernodes that are automatically selected by the network using combined proof of work and proof of stake algorithm. Focus on Absolute Privacy Ripple consensus protocol is different, and its main problem is that it does not provide privacy features: untraceability and unlinkability of payment transactions. Unlike Graft blockchain, all transaction information on the Ripple ledger is public. Ripple does not provide the privacy and untraceability that are demanded today by potential Graft users – both buyers and merchants. When we pay with credit card, we share our secret payment information (like credit card number) with some entities – the merchant, the issuing bank, the payment processor, the payment acquiring bank – but those entities are relatively trustable so they try not to share our secrets with the entire world, and no one else can see our transaction history without our or their permission. Oftentimes, however, they fail to keep our secrets (think Target and many other retail mega breaches). With Ripple or Bitcoin or most other cryptocurrencies that are not based on CryptoNote protocol, the story is exactly opposite: there is no central authority that “knows” our secret “card number” (private key), but at the same time anyone in the world can trace our payments on the blockchain and link them to our identities with minimum efforts. By Implementing CryptoNote and other features, Graft brings the level of untraceability of payment history similar to traditional credit and debit card system, while adding decentralization, privacy, and security, which are the features of any cryptocurrency that are absolutely impossible to achieve using traditional credit card payment technology.

Since Graft uses CryptoNote protocol, has the Monero community indicated support for Graft?

While Graft supernode code is being written from scratch, the blockchain CryptoNote implementation codebase is forked from Monero. We do not anticipate a direct and immediate Monero community support. However, we believe that our project attracts people from CryptoNote communities as it adds a lot of features that are not available in existing CryptoNote implementations. One example of such a feature is real-time authorization (instant confirmation). Another example is hidden transaction fee amount, which is exposed to public view in all existing blockchains. This table compares Graft with Monero, Bitcoin, Dash, and other cryptocurrencies. However, there are even more important features that are not simply enhancements of the CryptoNote protocol. No one needs just another blockchain, even if it provides better privacy. But Graft is much more than just “another blockchain”. Graft is innovative payment application platform which supports various payment and payout methods, either traditional or innovative. While providing “reference”, default implementations of applications and services, Graft ecosystem is open for any software vendors and service providers. We believe in diversity of payment methods and cryptocurrencies.

Graft Pre-Sale on NEM Platform

We are very happy to announce that Graft token pre-sale will be conducted using a token based on NEM Mosaic, a smart contract token platform. The Graft NEM based tokens (Graft:token) will be exchanged to GRF coins once Graft network becomes operational, which is preliminary scheduled for the end of the year. We are seeking to sell 135,000 Graft:tokens for 353.7 BTC. Pre-sale will start on September 15th 2017 at 15pm UTC and end on September 22nd 2017 at 15pm UTC. The pre-sale price of one Graft:token (0.001843 BTC / 0.028 ETH / 28.06 XEM) is 30% less than the final sale price which is set to 0.00262 BTC / 0.04 ETH / 40.09 XEM.

The Graft coin is called Graft (GRF), and is the “fuel” of the Graft platform. GRF are cryptographic tokens that will enable purchasers to transact and operate services on the Graft platform when it is launched by Graft. GRF is required for participation in Graft network activities, including but not limited to operating the full supernodes, which provide instant confirmations and other important network services. The total supply (maximum number) of GRF is 18,446,744. The majority of GRF will be created as a block reward by supernode operators during several years of mining. Since Graft uses combined Pow/PoS algorithm, 500 GRF will be required to deposit as proof of stake in order to operate the full supernode. For more details about its uses in the network, please see Graft white paper or/and Frequently Asked Questions.

At the time of the pre-sale, the Graft platform will not have been launched. Purchasers in the pre-sale will acquire Graft:token (NEM based smart contract tokens) in exchange for BTC, ETH, or XEM. 135,000 Graft:tokens pre-sold in this manner can be exchanged to GRF coins created in the Graft genesis block. Graft will allocate equivalent amount of GRF purchased in the pre-sale in the genesis block. The genesis block will constitute the inception of operation of the Graft network.

Is Graft payment more secure and private than credit card payment?

It depends on how you pay or accept payment. Graft platform offers multiple ways to pay (for a buyer) as well as various methods of accepting payment (for a merchant). if buyer pays by Graft plastic card linked to the buyer’s Graft cryptocurrency wallet, he or she relies on merchant, merchant’s payment processor, and acquiring bank, who are not always the best experts in keeping our data safe (remember all those endless mega card data breaches like Target). However, If such a card payment is accepted by a merchant that also uses Graft network and Graft point of sale app, this payment is more secure and private because the Graft card is recognized and handled by the Graft network as internal transaction. This is almost the same as paying with GRAFT itself (graft coins). “Almost” because there are still some “standard” risks associated with using a plastic card, even Graft card, since the card is issued by a centralized institution (otherwise, it wouldn’t be accepted everywhere, including merchants who don’t work with Graft network yet). GRAFT (coin) is the most secure, private, and least expensive way to transfer funds (although it is important to note that payment is always free for a buyer, because Graft is the only platform that charges transaction fees to the merchant just like in the “real world” of payments, but there are also “authenticated” transfers that are absolutely free for both sender and recipient). GRAFT is the most private and secure way to pay because the payment does not leave the network where all the elements of transaction – sender address, recipient address, transaction amount, and even transaction fees – are encrypted and hidden from public view. Nevertheless, Graft blockchain is still public, and transaction is validated by multiple supernodes. Such a level of security and privacy is achieved by using CryptoNote protocol and additional technology designed by Graft.  

Graft mobile wallet and point of sale apps do not maintain a full copy of the blockchain for obvious reasons. Does it mean the wallet content is stored on supernodes which may compromise its security and privacy?

There are multiple elements of the Graft user wallet:
  • Private spend key – secret – required to spend money; stored in the wallet app
  • Private view key – “semi-secret” – required to see the balance and previous transactions
  • Payment address – public – required to receive money
In Graft, the Private spend key is always stored at the client (wallet) and never shared with the supernodes. Therefore, it is not the same as credit card when you share you card account number with the merchant, payment processor, and the bank every time you make a payment. If one of them is breached, your credit card can be stolen and used to make fraudulent payments. If any or even all supernodes are “breached”, they don’t have your private spend key so no one will be able to “use” your Graft account.
The Graft wallet balance is a “hidden” set of previous transactions. It is calculated by scanning all the previous transactions which are stored on the public blockchain but invisible without view key. Since mobile wallet app does not have direct access to the blockchain, the private view key is temporary shared with a single “proxy” (relay) supernode in order to retrieve the wallet balance; the supernode will not store this view key in any database so even if it’s “breached” the view key will not be disclosed in most cases. However, even if the view key is disclosed, it only allows to see transactions, not to spend any money.
Users (either buyers or merchants) with higher requirements for privacy can host their own private “proxy” supernode with full copy of blockchain. This way they will never share their view keys with the random “foreign” supernodes. Most probably, due to limited processing power and other resource limitations, such a private proxy supernode will not be able to participate in transaction processing and earn any block rewards or transaction fees, but it will still be able to validate transactions and view balances privately by scanning the local copy of the blockchain. For users who cannot or don’t want to host their own supernode but still don’t trust the entire network, Graft creates a special (free) cloud service with trusted proxy supernodes that are protected by multiple levels of security.

In order to process real-time authorization (instant confirmation) Graft network puts a “lock” on buyer’s account. How does it not violate one of the main goals of any cryptocurrency system – untraceability?

First of all, untraceability is not a feature of any cryptocurrency. As of today, CryptoNote is perhaps the only protocol that enables full privacy and untraceability. The beauty of Cryptonote is that it hides the details of transaction while still preventing double-spending. This is achieved through the use of key image which is unique “fingerprint” that represents the spending address and amount without disclosing any details about the buyer or the amount. By providing the key image for upcoming transaction to the network of supernodes, the buyer’s wallet will temporarily “lock” its “account”, so no other transaction with the same key image can happen until the locked transaction is settled or the lock is removed. If the buyer will try to finalize the transaction with the key image different from the one used in the original lock, such transaction will be rejected by the supernodes. On the other hand, the key image does not contain any information about the buyer, buyer’s wallet, or recipient (merchant). In addition, any traces of communication between the buyer (wallet app), the merchant (point of sale app), and the supernodes (selected proxy and sample supernodes) during authorization phases are completely removed once transaction is settled (written into the blockchain). Even transaction fees paid by merchant to authorizing supernodes are hidden from public view, which is another major privacy improvement comparing to all previous CryptoNote implementations that do not hide transaction fees.

Will Anyone Be Able to Run a Supernode?

We call it supernode because it performs more functions than “traditional” network node, and there are different requirements for supernode owners. Yes, Graft network is open and decentralized, and anyone will be able to run a supernode, but there are different levels of supernode and different conditions (and rewards) associated with each level.
Proxy Supernode is the “entry level” – everyone can install the supernode software and host Relay supernode. The only requirement is public IP, but this can be achieved even with home network. Proxy supernode does not mine or provide services, but it can be useful for several purposes; for example, as a trusted relay for those who have highest privacy requirements, so they can host their own “wallet server”, or for large merchants as a “store server” for even faster transaction processing.
Miner Supernode can generate revenue by earning block rewards. The only requirement (in addition to public IP) is higher computing power required for PoW mining. Miner supernode is the last step before the next and highest level.
Full Supernode is both miner and service provider. It cannot perform its instant authorization functions or service brokerage (credit card acceptance, for example) without mining. In addition, performing Full functions requires a stake – collateral balance associated with supernode address. Hence combined PoW/PoS. Miner supernode can mine without a stake but it won’t be able to provide services, i.e. it won’t be able to earn transaction and service fees. Note that Graft miner does not receive transaction or service fees, only block rewards. Transaction and service fees are only paid to Full supernode that mines, has a stake, issues instant approvals, and hosts network service brokers.

How Graft Zero-Fee Transaction is Possible, and Why Other Cryptocurrency Networks Cannot Afford Free Funds Transfers?

Many payment networks such as ACH or PayPal provide free transfers between user accounts which create a huge incentive comparing to cryptocurrencies, which charge users unproportional fees regardless the speed and amount of transaction. This feature is perfectly suitable for transactions with low speed requirements, such as funds transfers between family accounts or remittance of employees’ salaries. In order to be able to compete with traditional payment networks, Graft provides limited free transfers between user wallets. Bitcoin and most other cryptocurrency networks usually cannot “afford” free transactions for three major reasons:
Lack of incentive for minersThreat of DOS attacksUncontrolled growth of blockchain
Graft resolves the first problem by logical separation between payment and transfer, so supernodes (miners) receive transaction fees for instant payments which constitute the majority of all transactions, while free transfers are processed “on the background” with lower priority.
The second problem with DOS threat is resolved by voluntary user identification and authentication. Of course, there are no free lunches, so the users should “pay” by providing their identity to the network to ensure the reasonable use (by limiting the number and frequency of free transfers per user) and prevent the network abuse. However, using zero knowledge proof authentication technology will allow users to prove their identity without compromising their privacy.
The last problem with uncontrolled block size growth is resolved by a complex of measures: small block interval, unlimited block size, and standard restricted transaction size for particular transaction types such as free transfer. In addition, one of the sides of the free transfer must prove that they contributed to the network by conducting “commercial” payment transaction types in the past.